Dr Julie Smith

Honorary Associate Professor


BEc(Hons)/BA (Asian Studies), PhD (Economics)

T: +61 4 1609 9630 E: Julie.Smith@anu.edu.au

Dr Smith is an Honorary Associate Professor and awarded ARC Future Fellow at the Research School of Population Health, ANU. She is also an Fellow at the Crawford School of Public Policy's Tax and Transfer Policy Institute.

Her PhD was awarded by the ANU in 2002, supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award. She won an ARC Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2004. From 2004 to 2014, Dr Smith held research appointments at the Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health (ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment). In 2015 she was appointed as Associate Professor at the Menzies Centre for Health Policy in the College of Asia and Pacific, School of Regulation and Global Governance.

Her research has focussed on the economics of breastfeeding and regulation of markets in mothers' milk, and gender analysis of Australia's taxation and fiscal policies. She has published over 60 research articles in health, nutrition and economics journals, as well as two books (Taxing Popularity and Gambling Taxation in Australia) and several book chapters.

Dr Smith was lead CI on ARC funded research projects on the economics of breastfeeding and markets in mothers milk, surveying maternal time use and breastfeeding support in workplaces and childcare. She has been a chief investigator on an NHMRC smoking cessation RCT.

Dr Smith has been an expert advisor on economic aspects of breastfeeding to the WHO and the US Department of Health and Human Services, and led a consultancy for WHO on marketing of commercial complementary foods for infants and young children. She also led the evidence check commissioned by the Australian Department of Health for the 2019 Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy.

Her invited expertise has contributed to several public inquiries including on breastfeeding, paid maternity leave, gambling taxation, land tenures, taxation policy and tax expenditures reporting.

She served as an honorary tax policy advisor to ACOSS since 1999, as honorary national treasurer of the ABA from 2002-2007, and as an advisor to IBFAN and WABA. She is an editorial board member of the International Breastfeeding Journal and served on the ILCA Research Committee.

She held appointments at the ANU Research School of Social Sciences and Centre for International and Public Law from 1992.

She was previously a senior economist in the Australian and New Zealand treasuries, Commonwealth Departments of Finance, Environment, and Prime Minister and Cabinet, and in the Parliamentary Library Research Service.


Research interests

Main research interests: feminist economics, labor economics, health economics, maternal and child health and public health, public finance and public policy including;

    • National accounting treatment of non-market economic production
    • Economic valuation of breastfeeding and human milk
    • Markets, exchange and trading of mothers milk, and regulation of markets and marketing of food for infants and young children
    • Gender budgeting, Health care financing, Federalism and health policy, Cost benefit and cost effectiveness analysis,
    • Economics of work and breastfeeding, Maternal time use especially time use of new mothers, Breastfeeding friendly environments (hospitals, workplaces and childcare)
    • Australian tax policy history, Fiscal federalism and horizontal equalisation, Taxation of families and children, Gambling taxation, Taxation of charities, Tax expenditures (superannuation, health insurance etc)
    • Smoking cessation and tobacco control, including of tobacco marketing

                  Professional memberships

                    • International Association for Research in Income and Wealth (IARIW)
                    • International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)
                    • International Association of Feminist Economics (IAFFE)
                    • Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA)
                    • Australian Health Economics Society (AHES)
                    • Lactation Consultants Association of Australia and New Zealand (LCANZ)
                    • Economic Society of Australia (ESA)




                    • Smith, J, Iellamo, A, Nguyen, T et al. 2023, 'The volume and monetary value of human milk produced by the world's breastfeeding mothers: Results from a new tool', Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 11.
                    • Baker, P, Smith, J, Garde, A et al. 2023, 'The political economy of infant and young child feeding: confronting corporate power, overcoming structural barriers, and accelerating progress', Lancet, The (UK edition), vol. 401, no. 10375, pp. 503-524.
                    • Gribble, K, Smith, J, Gammeltoft, T et al. 2023, 'Breastfeeding and infant care as 'sexed' care work: reconsideration of the three Rs to enable women's rights, economic empowerment, nutrition and health', Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 11.
                    • Smith, J, Borg, B, Iellamo, A et al. 2023, 'Innovative financing for a gender-equitable first-food system to mitigate greenhouse gas impacts of commercial milk formula: investing in breastfeeding as a carbon offset', Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, vol. 7.
                    • Smith, J, Lande, B, Johansson, L et al. 2022, 'The contribution of breastfeeding to a healthy, secure and sustainable food system for infants and young children: monitoring mothers' milk production in the food surveillance system of Norway', Public Health Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2693-2701.
                    • Cetthakrikul, N, Kelly, M, Baker, P et al. 2022, 'Effect of baby food marketing exposure on infant and young child feeding regimes in Bangkok, Thailand', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-15.
                    • Cetthakrikul, N, Kelly, M, Banwell, C , Baker, P, Smith JP. 2022, 'Regulation of baby food marketing in Thailand: a NetCode analysis', Public Health Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2680-2692.
                    • Pramono, A, Smith, J, Bourke, S et al. 2022, '"We All Believe in Breastfeeding": Australian Midwives' Experience of Implementing the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative', Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 780-791.
                    • Pramono, A, Smith, J, Bourke, S et al. 2022, 'How midwives and nurses experience implementing ten steps to successful breastfeeding: a qualitative case study in an Indonesian maternity care facility', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-11.
                    • Stone, C & Smith, JP 2022, 'The visibility of breastfeeding as a sexual and reproductive health right: a review of the relevant literature', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-15.
                    • Baker, P, Russ, K, Kang, M et al. 2021, 'Globalization, first-foods systems transformations and corporate power: a synthesis of literature and data on the market and political practices of the transnational baby food industry', Globalization and Health, vol. 17, no. 1.
                    • Baker, P., Santos, T., Neves, P. A., Machado, P., Smith, J., Piwoz, E., Barros, A. J. D., Victora, C. G., & McCoy, D. (2021, Apr). First-food systems transformations and the ultra-processing of infant and young child diets: The determinants, dynamics and consequences of the global rise in commercial milk formula consumption. Matern Child Nutr, 17(2), e13097. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13097

                    • Smith, J & Forrester, R 2021, 'Association between breastfeeding and new mothers' sleep: a unique Australian time use study', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-13.
                    • Pramono, A, Smith, J, Desborough, J et al. 2021, 'Social value of maintaining baby-friendly hospital initiative accreditation in Australia: case study', International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
                    • Dadhich, J, Smith, J, Iellamo, A et al. 2021, 'Climate Change and Infant Nutrition: Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Milk Formula Sold in Selected Asia Pacific Countries', Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 314-322.
                    • Pramono, A, Desborough, J, Smith, J et al. 2021, 'The social value of implementing the ten steps to successful breastfeeding in an Indonesian hospital: A case study', Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 429-458.
                    • Cetthakrikul, N, Baker, P, Banwell, C, Kelly, M, Smith, JP. 2021, 'Corporate political activity of baby food companies in Thailand', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-13.
                    • Jenkins, F & Smith, J 2021, 'Work-from-home during COVID-19: Accounting for the care economy to build back better', The Economic and Labour Relations Review, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 22-38.
                    • Smith, J & Iellamo, A 2020, 'Wet nursing and donor human milk sharing in emergencies and disasters: A review', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 7-23.
                    • McGuire, J, Irvine , S, Smith, J et al. 2020, 'Creating supportive environments for responsive infant feeding in Australian early childhood education and care', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 47-64.
                    • Israel-Ballard, K, Cohen, J, Mansen, K et al. 2019, 'Call to action for equitable access to human milk for vulnerable infants', The Lancet Global Health, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. e1484-e1486.
                    • Holla-Bhar, R, Iellamo , A, Gupta, A et al. 2019, 'Letter to the Editor on the Article by Caroll GJ, Buccini GS, and P�rez-Escamilla R Titled "Perspective: What Will it Cost to Scale-Up Breastfeeding Programs? A Comparison of Current Global Costing Methodologies"', Advances in Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 727-727.
                    • Smith, J 2019, 'A commentary on the carbon footprint of milk formula: harms to planetary health and policy implications', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 14, no. 49, pp. 1-7.
                    • Smith, J 2019, 'Counting the cost of not breastfeeding is now easier, but women's unpaid health care work remains invisible', Health Policy and Planning, Volume 34, Issue 6, July 2019, Pages 479–481, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czz064
                    • Pramono, A, Desborough, J & Smith, J 2019, 'The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding Policy Review', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 15-28.
                    • McGuire, J, Irvine, S, Smith, J et al 2019, 'Australian early childhood educators and infant feeding: a qualitative analysis using social cognitive theory [IN PRESS]', Early Child Development and Care, vol. Online, pp. 1-16.
                    • Eden, K, Carroll, K, Williamson Smith, R et al. 2019, 'Designated private breastfeeding spaces in the university sector: An audit of one Australian university', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 43-52.
                    • Smith JP, Cattaneo A, Iellamo A, Javanparast S, Atchan M, Hartmann B, et al. Review of effective strategies to promote breastfeeding: an Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute (www.saxinstitute.org.au) for the Australian Department of Health. Canberra, Australia: Australian Department of Health, ; 2018.
                    • Smith, J 2018, 'Australia's national breastfeeding strategy: What's happening and will it work?', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 7-14.
                    • Hull, N, Smith, J, Peterson, M et al. 2018, 'Putting Australia to the test � The World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 7-15.
                    • Smith, J, Iellamo, A & Baker, P 2018, Child health is on the line as Codex deliberates food standards, Croakey, p. 1.
                    • Smith, J, Costa, M & Stewart, M 2017, Report: Gender responsive budgeting and breastfeeding policies: insights from the Asia-Pacific region.
                    • Smith, J 2017, 'Markets in mother's milk: Virtue or vice, promise, or problem?', in Mathilde Cohen and Yoriko Otomo (ed.), Making Milk: The past, present and future of our primary food, Bloomsbury, United Kindgdom, pp. 117-137.
                    • Forgues, C, Mazanov, J & Smith, J 2017, 'The paradox of human milk doping for anti-doping', Performance Enhancement and Health, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 158-165.
                    • Smith, J 2017, 'Paying for care in Australia's wage earners' welfare state': The case of child endowment', in Miranda Stewart (ed.), Tax, Social Policy and Gender: Rethinking Equality and Efficiency, ANU E Press, Canberra, pp. 161-205.
                    • Smith, J and Folbre N., 2018, 'New ways to measure economic activity: Breastfeeding as an economic indicator', ANU Online, pp. 3pp.
                    • Smith, J & Forrester, R 2017, 'Maternal Time Use and Nurturing: Analysis of the Association Between Breastfeeding Practice and Time Spent Interacting with Baby', Breastfeeding Medicine, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 269-278.
                    • Smith, J, Javanparast, S & Craig, L 2017, 'Bringing babies and breasts into workplaces: Support for breastfeeding mothers in workplaces and childcare services at the Australian National University', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 45-57pp.
                    • Hull, N, Schubert, L & Smith, J 2017, 'Perspectives of key stakeholders and experts in infant feeding on the implementation of the Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy 2010-2015', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25-34.
                    • Ryan, M & Smith, J 2016, 'Breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes and training amongst Australian community pharmacists', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 35-43.
                    • Baker, P, Smith, J, Salmon, L et al 2016, 'Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?', Public Health Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 2540-2550pp.
                    • Salmon, L, Smith, J & Baker, P 2015, Driving demand for baby milk - the Australian Competition and Consumers Commission's gift to industry marketing?, pp. 1-5pp.
                    • Halcomb, E, Furler, J, Hermiz, O et al 2015, 'Process evaluation of a practice nurse-led smoking cessation trial in Australian general practice: views of general practitioners and practice nurses', Family Practice, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 468-473.
                    • Smith, J 2015, 'Australian state income taxation: a historical perspective', Australian Tax Forum, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 679-712.
                    • SMITH, J. P., SARGENT, G. M., MEHTA, K., JAMES, J., BERRY, N., KOH, C., SALMON, L. & BLAKE, M. 2015. A rapid evidence assessment: Does marketing of commercially available complementary foods affect infant and young child feeding? . Geneva, Switzerland: Commissioned by the World Health Organization, .
                    • Dadhich, J, Smith, J, Iellamo, A et al 2015, Report on Carbon Footprints Due to Milk Formula: A study from selected countries of the Asia-Pacific region.
                    • Zwar, N, Richmond, R, Halcomb, E et al 2015, 'Quit in general practice: a cluster randomized trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation', Family Practice, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 173-180.
                    • Holla-Bhar, R, Iellamo, A, Gupta, A et al 2015, 'Investing in breastfeeding: the world breastfeeding costing initiative', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 10, no. 8, p. 12.
                    • Smith, J 2015, 'Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk', International Breastfeeding Journal, vol. 10, no. 9, p. 7.
                    • Smith, J, Galtry, J & Salmon, L 2014, 'Confronting the formula feeding epidemic in a new era of trade and investment liberalisation', Journal of Australian Political Economy, vol. 73, no. 73, pp. 132-171.
                    • Smith, J. P. 2014. Making mothers’ milk count. In: Bjornholt M, McKay A. (eds.) Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances of Feminist Economics. Bradford, Ontario: Demeter Press. p. 344.
                    • Smith, J & Blake, M 2013, 'Infant food marketing strategies undermine effective regulation of breast-milk substitutes: trends in print advertising in Australia, 1950-2010', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 337-344.
                    • Smith, J & Forrester, R 2013, 'Who Pays for the Health Benefits of Exclusive Breastfeeding? An Analysis of Maternal Time Costs', Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 547-555.
                    • Smith, J 2013, '"Lost Milk?" Counting the Economic Value of Breast Milk in Gross Domestic Product', Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 537-546.
                    • Smith, J, McIntyre, E, Craig, L et al 2013, 'Workplace support, breast feeding and health', Family Matters, vol. 93, no. 93, pp. 58-73.
                    • Smith, J, Javanparast, S, McIntyre, E et al 2013, 'Discrimination Against Breastfeeding Mothers in Childcare', Australian Journal of Labour Economics, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 65-90.
                    • Smith, J 2012, Including household production in the system of National Accounts (SNA) - exploring the implications of breastfeeding and human milk provision.
                    • Smith, J & Harvey, P 2011, 'Chronic disease and infant nutrition: is it significant to public health?', Public Health Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 279-289.
                    • Smith, J & Ellwood, M 2011, 'Feeding Patterns and Emotional Care in Breastfed Infants', Social Indicators Research, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 227-231.
                    • Zwar, N, Richmond, R, Halcomb, E et al 2010, 'Quit in general practice: a cluster randomised trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation', BMC Family Practice Journal, vol. 11, p. 8.
                    • Baxter, J, Cooklin, A & Smith, J 2009, 'Which mothers wean their babies prematurely from full breastfeeding? An Australian cohort study', Acta Paediatrica, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1274-77.
                    • Smith, J, Dunstone, M & Elliott-Rudder, M 2009, 'Health Professional Knowledge of Breastfeeding: Are the Health Risks of Infant Formula Feeding Accurately Conveyed by the Titles and Abstracts of Journal Articles?', Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 350-358.
                    • Smith, J 2007, 'Time use among new mothers, the economic value of unpaid work and gender aspects of superannuation tax concessions', Australian Journal of Labour Economics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 99-114.
                    • Smith, J 2007, 'The contribution of infant food marketing to the obesogenic environment in Australia', Breastfeeding Review, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 23.
                    • Smith, J 2007, 'The Marketed environment: formula for fatness', in Jane Dixon and Dorothy.H Broom (ed.), The seven deadly sins of obesity: how the modern world is making us fat, UNSW Press, Sydney, pp. 101-125.
                    • Smith, J & Ingham, L 2005, 'Mothers milk and measures of economic output', Feminist Economics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 41-62.
                    • Smith, J 2004, 'Tax Advance or Retreat? Where to from Here with a New Tax System', Australian Options, vol. Spring 2004, no. 38, pp. 115-8.
                    • Smith, J 2004, 'The Syntax of Sin Taxes', in Julie P. Smith (ed.), Taxing Popularity: The Story of Taxation in Australia (2nd ed), Australian Tax Research Foundation, Canberra, pp. 126-146.
                    • Smith, J 2004, 'Mothers Milk and Markets', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 19, no. 45, pp. 369-379.
                    • Smith, J 2004, 'Momentous or Momentary Tax Reform', in Julie P. Smith (ed.), Taxing Popularity: The Story of Taxation in Australia (2nd ed), Australian Tax Research Foundation, Canberra, pp. 147-191.
                    • Smith, J 2003, Tax expenditures: the $30 billion twilight zone of government spending, Department of the Parliamentary Library.
                    • Smith, J 2002, 'Mother's Milk, Money and Markets', in Bryan Furnass (ed.), Good Grub: Food for healthy people and a healthy planet, Nature and Society Forum Inc., Canberra, pp. 101-6.
                    • Smith, J, Thompson, J & Ellwood, D 2002, 'Hospital system costs of artificial infant feeding: estimates for the Australian Capital Territory', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 543-551.
                    • Smith, J 2002, 'Redistribution and federal finance', Economic History Review, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 284-311.
                    • Smith, J & Ingham, L 2001, 'Breast Feeding and the Measurement of Economic Progress', Journal of Australian Political Economy, vol. 47, pp. 51-72.
                    • Smith, J 2001, 'Progessivity of the Commonwealth Personal Income Tax, 1917-1997', The Australian Economic Review, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 263-278.
                    • Smith, J 2001, 'Tax Expenditures and Public Health Financing in Australia', The Economic and Labour Relations Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 239-62.
                    • Smith, J 2000, 'Gambling Taxation: Public Equity in the Gambling Business', The Australian Economic Review, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 120-244.
                    • Smith, J 2000, 'Tax Expenditures and Public Health Financing in Australia', Australia Institute Discussion Paper Number 33, September 2000.
                    • Smith, J 1999, 'Human Milk Supply in Australia', Food Policy, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 71-91.
                    • Smith, J 1999, 'Progressing Tax Reform', in Michael Carman and Ian Rogers (ed.), Out of the rut: making labor a genuine alternative, Allen & Unwin, Australia, pp. 95-130.

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