The effectiveness, acceptability and cost effectiveness of the 'BALatrine'

We will determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of the 'BALatrine'. The 'BALatrine' – developed by Dr Budi Laksono – is an ‘amphibious’ wet/dry latrine that uses simple, cheap local technology. It is a simple squat latrine, usually constructed by the villagers themselves, at the side of a house. It comprises a 2 metre pit (with optional bamboo/concrete pipe strengthening); a latrine plate with raised footsteps (which can be used during dry periods); and a flushable U-bend porcelain bowl that may be removed. All can be made from local materials.



Australian National Unive​rsity

  • Associate Professor Darren Gray
  • Professor Archie Clements

Griffith University

  • Professor Don Stewart
  • Dr Ross Sadler

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute

  • Professor James McCarthy

Queensland University of Technology

  • Dr Kate Halton

University of Queensland

  • Dr Ricardo Soares Magalhaes


Yayasan Wahana Bakti Sejatera (YWBS) Foundation

  • Dr Budi Laksono

University of Diponegoro

  • Professor Hadisaputro Suharyo

Funding partners

  • National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia
  • UBS Optimus Foundation, Switzerland